阿拉克西曼尼

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  I. 師承


  「Anaximenes son of Eurystratus, of Miletus, was a pupil of Anaximander; some say he was also a pupil of Parmenides. He said that the material principle was air and the infinite; and that the stars move, not under the earth, but round it. He used simple and economical Ionic speech. He was active, according to what Apollodorus says, around the time of the capture of Sardis, and died in the 63rd Olympiad (Diogenes Laertius II, 3, qt. Kirk, 143)。


  前蘇格拉哲學家之間的傳承關係並非像後來柏拉圖的Academy、Aristotle和Peripatetics那樣明顯,第一個帶哲學色彩的群體的建立是畢達哥拉斯學派,而這也更多是一宗教性質的團體。拉爾修(Laertius)指出有關阿那克西曼尼師承的兩種看法:


  1. 阿那克西曼尼是阿那克西曼德的學生。絕大部分研究者均持此論,如 Hgel, Zeller, Cornford, Burnet, Guthrie, Windelband, Thilly, and Russell。


  2. 阿那克西曼尼師承巴曼尼德。而尼采獨持此論斷,認為正確的傳承關係是:阿那克西曼德----巴曼尼德----阿那克西曼尼。尼采認為「He[Anaximenes] was born during Olympiad 63 (529-525)」(39),這與通常認為阿那克西曼尼死於Olympiad 63 (529-525)差別太大,而且尼採的推論在學術的內在理路上也缺乏證據:如果阿那克西曼尼是巴曼尼德的學生,那為何巴曼尼德一些重要理論未見阿那克西曼尼有所提及和分析?如存在和非存在、思維和存在的關係、知識(真理)和意見的區分。 這個問題涉及文本的解讀,以及複雜的日期推演。 如果將阿那克西曼尼是為阿那克西曼德、而非巴曼尼德的繼承者,至少在哲學發展的內在邏輯上是很合理的,正如Zeller 所言:「Anaximenes, also a Milesian, is called by later writers the disciple of Anaximander, which is at least so far true that he clearly betrays the influence of his predecessor (41)」。


  II. 作品和文體


  「He used simple and economical Ionic speech」。這是相對於Anaximander而言的。阿那克西曼德雖然是用散文撰述哲學作品的第一人,但仍保留詩意化的語言:「speaking of them thus in rather poetical terms」。阿那克西曼尼能夠使用簡單而經濟(simple and economical)的語言來進行哲學寫作,表明思辨能力以及語言的掌握、運用能力的提高。


  III. 本體論


  1. 「氣」作為本原:


  (a). 「Anaximenes and Diogenes make air prior to water」 (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 984 a)。


  (b). Anaximenes of Miletos, son of Eurystratos, who had been an associate of Anaximander, said, like him, that the underlying substance was one and infinite. He did not, however, say it was indeterminate, like Anaximander, but determinate; for he said it was Air (Phys. Op. fr. 2 qt. Burnet, 73).


  (c). Anaximenes said that infinite air was the principle, from which the things that are becoming, and that are, and that shall be, and gods and things divine. All come into being and the rest form its products. The form of air is of this kind: whenever it is most equable it is invisible to sight, but is revealed by the cold and the hot and the damp and by movement (Hippolytus Ref. 1, 7, I, qt. Kirk, 145)。


  A. 思想的來源與傳承:文獻(a)表明阿那克西曼尼在泰勒斯的基礎上提出是「氣」,而非「水」乃世界的本源。文獻(b)則說明阿那克西曼尼肯定阿那克西曼德對世界本原的空間和數量上的無限的規定,但不認為其性質「未定」, 而是一種確定的物質形式--「氣」。


  B. 「氣」的理解:


  (1) 「氣」(air)在阿那克西曼尼是其有四種含義


  (a) In its normal condition, when most evenly distributed, it is invisible, and it then corresponds to our 「air」


  (b) The breath we inhale


  (c) The wind that blows


  (d) Mist or vapour


  (2) 柏奈特(Burnet)認為阿那克西曼尼以「氣」為世界的本原時,涵括此四種含義上。因為「It was Empedokles we shall see, who first discovered that what we call air was a distinct corporeal substance, and not identical with vapour or with empty space (74)。梯利(Thilly)亦持此論。


  (3) 但Kirk認為:「Anaximenes probably said that all things were surrounded by 「wind (or breath) and air」, and that the soul is related to this air; which suggests that for him air was not mist but, as Hippolytus assumed, the invisible atmospheric air. This is confirmed by the fact that he evidently described winds as slightly condensed form of air (146).


  C. 阿那克西曼尼提出以「氣」為始基的理由


  A. 宇宙物質也應該是生命物質。此點類似泰勒斯認為「水」是本原的理由(Aristotle, Metaphysics, 983b)。阿那克西曼尼觀察到呼吸乃生命的象徵,而呼吸即「靈氣」、「靈魂」: 「Just as,」 he said, 「our soul, being air, holds us together, so do breath and air encompass the whole world」 (Aet. Qt. Burnet, 73)。


  B. 受到阿那克西曼德的影響,阿那克西曼尼修正泰勒斯的觀點,認為更具變化、更不易感知、無限的「氣」方為世界本原。


  C. Guthrie 認為一理論的提出除了有意識、理性的理論建構之外,還受到「無意識的預設」(unconscious presupposition)的影響:which were his inheritance from the current and popular views of his time (119)。此種預設包括:


  (1) That the air which we breathe should be the life itself which animates us is a common idea, and the breath-soul a world-wild conception (128)


  (2) The idea that a female could be impregnated, and thus new life originated—Achilles in Iliad (128)


  (3) Orphism: 「the soul enters into us from the whole as we breathe, borne by the winds」 (129).


  2.「氣」乃神聖(air is divine):此點同阿那克西曼德,將本原視為神聖:Afterwards, Anaximenes determined that air is a god, and that it comes into being, and is measureless and infinite and always in motion (Cicero, qt. Kirk, 150)。


  3. 萬物之生成


  A. 原因:與泰勒斯和阿那克西曼德通,持物活論,認為本原乃 self-caused, 處self-movement, eternal-motion的狀態。


  B. 生成的機制:It is always in motion; for things that change do not change unless there be movement. Through becoming denser or finer it has different appearance; for when it is dissolved into what is finer it becomes fire, while winds, again, are air that is becoming condensed and cloud is produced from air by felting. When it is condensed still more, water produced, and when condensed as far as possible, stones. The result is that the most influential components of generation are opposites, hot and cold (Hippolytus Ref. 1, 7, I, qt. Kirk, 145)。這就是阿那克西曼尼的事物的生成乃因本原「氣」的「凝聚」(condensation)和「稀薄」(rarefaction)。此理論的提出應該是基於日常生活的觀察:呼出的氣流可以是冷氣,也可以是熱氣。在這裡,阿那克西曼德的「冷」和「熱」的對立就體現在氣的「稀」 (rarity)、「凝」(density)。阿那克西曼德是一中分離生成觀,而阿那克曼尼是一種「典型的轉化生成觀」(趙敦華,11)。


  IV. 宇宙論


  1. 地球:As the air 「felted」, earth, he says, came into being first, quite flat; wherefore it rides, as is reasonable, upon the air (Stromateis, qt. Guthrie, 133)。


  A. 「氣」凝聚首先形成地球


  B. 平、圓的地球,如同一桌子,可以否在空氣之中。


  2. 天體的形成:And the sun, moon and other heavenly bodies originate from earth. He argues at any rate that the sun is earth but acquires great heat form its swift motion (Guthrie, 133).


  A. 太陽、月亮和其他天體都是源於地球。照此解釋,天體的形成過程應該是「氣」先凝聚而成地球,在從地球稀薄成火,從而形成群星。此點是阿那克西曼尼宇宙論中混亂之處。


  B. 因為源於地球,故太陽也和地球有同樣的構成,只是因為快速的運轉而溫度很高。


  3.對阿那克西曼德宇宙論的一點修正:But on one astronomical point Anaximenes improved on Anaximander, for the report in Hippolytus that according to him 「the stars give no heat owing to that their great distance」 shows that he abandoned the strange doctrine that the stars are nearer the earth than is the sun (Guthrie, 138)。


  V. 氣象學


  1. 虹(Rainbow)的形成:He also spoke of the rainbow, no longer a radiant goddess Iris but only the effect of the sun』s rays on densely compacted air, which appeared in different colours according as the sun』s heat or the cloud』s moisture prevailed (Guthrie, 139)


  2. 地震的形成:Anaximenes says that when the earth is in process of becoming wet or dry it breaks, and is shaken by the high ground breaking and falling; which is why earthquakes occur in droughts and again in heavy rains: for in droughts the earth is dried and so, as just explained, breaks, and when the rains make it excessively wet it falls apart (Aristotle, Meteor. 365b, qt. Guthrie, 139)。


  VI. 評價


  1. 阿那克西曼尼以「氣」為世界本原,雖然可以說是一種退步,相較於阿那克西曼德的更為抽象的「未定」。「氣」仍為感性的物質性的規定,但較之泰勒斯的「水」,更為 non-perceptible,這是一進步。同時吸收了阿那克西曼德認為本原在空間、數量上無限的理論。


  2. 阿那克西曼將本原和「靈魂」聯繫起來。黑格而有很高的評價:「Anaximenes shows very clearly the nature of his essence in the soul, and he thus points out what may be called the transition of natural philosophy into the philosophy of consciousness, or the Surrender of the objective form of principle」 (190)。此點影響到阿那克薩戈拉對靈魂/理智和物質的區分。


  3. 但阿那克西曼尼最主要的貢獻還是生成機制的提出:凝聚和稀疏。他的理論「is the first theory answering the question, How can there be development out of one primal material?」, 此種將物質的性質的變化歸因於數量的變化的思想影響甚巨(包括現代科學),「The significance of this principle of thinning and thickening lies in its advancement toward an explanation of the world from mechanical principles –the raw material of materialistic atomistic systems」 (Nietzsche, 42)。柏奈特認為阿那克西曼尼乃米利都學派的集大成者(the culminating point of the line of thought which started with Thales, and to show how the 「philosophy of Anaximenes」 came to mean the Milesian doctrine as a whole):At first, this looks like a falling off from the more refined doctrine of Anaximander to a cruder view…In fact, it makes the Milesian cosmology consistent for the first time; since a theory which explains everything as a form of a single substance is clearly bound to regard all differences as quantitative. The only way to save the unity of the primary substance is to say that all diversities are due to the presence of more or less of it in a given space (74)。但泰勒斯應該已經有此等凝聚和稀疏的思想,而阿那克西曼尼將其系統化,故黑格爾將此種思想歸之於泰勒斯 (181)。而柏奈特亦提到Aristotle 在其《物理學》中似暗示阿那克西曼德已提及condensation和rarefaction (Burnet, 74, n. 1)。


  4. 在古代,阿那克西曼尼受到更多的尊崇:Anaximenes was more admired in antiquity than Anaximander (Russell, 28)。


  A. 對畢達哥拉斯的影響


  B. 阿那克薩戈拉對「靈魂」的強調


  C. 對原子論者機械論的影響。


  D. 對倫理化時期的哲學和中世紀神學的影響


  註:柏奈特強調阿那克西曼尼的影響時沒有側重他的一些負面作用,如他認為地球是漂浮在空氣中的平、圓的桌狀之物。


  5. 但現代卻會有相反的評論:though almost any modern world would make the opposite valuation(Russell, 28)。現代學術的專業化和世俗化產生此種轉變。對阿那克西曼尼批評主要集中在(和阿那克西曼德相比):


  A. 想象力的缺乏。


  B. 理論建構不夠大膽。


  C. 數學模型運用的闕如。


  D. 理論闡釋方面的邏輯性、體系建立能力的欠缺。


  Works Cited:


  Aristotle. Metaphysics. 2nd ed. Trans. W.D. Ross. In The Works of Aristotle. Vol. VIII. Oxford: Clarendon, 1928.


  Burnet, John. Early Greek Philosophy. 4th ed. London: Adam &Charles Black, 1948.


  Guthrie, W.K.C. A History of Greek Philosophy. Vol. I. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1962.


  Hegel, G. W. F. Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Trans. E.S. Haldane.


  London: Kegan Paul, 1892.


  Kirk, G. , Raven, J. and Schofield M. The Presocratic Philosophers. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.


  Nietzsche, F. The Pre-Platonic Philosophers. Trans. Greg Whitlock. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.


  Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945.


  趙敦華,《西方哲學簡史》,北京大學出版社,2001。


  VII. 師承


  「Anaximenes son of Eurystratus, of Miletus, was a pupil of Anaximander; some say he was also a pupil of Parmenides. He said that the material principle was air and the infinite; and that the stars move, not under the earth, but round it. He used simple and economical Ionic speech. He was active, according to what Apollodorus says, around the time of the capture of Sardis, and died in the 63rd Olympiad (Diogenes Laertius II, 3, qt. Kirk, 143)。


  前蘇格拉哲學家之間的傳承關係並非像後來柏拉圖的Academy、Aristotle和Peripatetics那樣明顯,第一個帶哲學色彩的群體的建立是畢達哥拉斯學派,而這也更多是一宗教性質的團體。拉爾修(Laertius)指出有關阿那克西曼尼師承的兩種看法:


  4. 阿那克西曼尼是阿那克西曼德的學生。絕大部分研究者均持此論,如 Hgel, Zeller, Cornford, Burnet, Guthrie, Windelband, Thilly, and Russell。


  5. 阿那克西曼尼師承巴曼尼德。而尼采獨持此論斷,認為正確的傳承關係是:阿那克西曼德----巴曼尼德----阿那克西曼尼。尼采認為「He[Anaximenes] was born during Olympiad 63 (529-525)」(39),這與通常認為阿那克西曼尼死於Olympiad 63 (529-525)差別太大,而且尼採的推論在學術的內在理路上也缺乏證據:如果阿那克西曼尼是巴曼尼德的學生,那為何巴曼尼德一些重要理論未見阿那克西曼尼有所提及和分析?如存在和非存在、思維和存在的關係、知識(真理)和意見的區分。 這個問題涉及文本的解讀,以及複雜的日期推演。 如果將阿那克西曼尼是為阿那克西曼德、而非巴曼尼德的繼承者,至少在哲學發展的內在邏輯上是很合理的,正如Zeller 所言:「Anaximenes, also a Milesian, is called by later writers the disciple of Anaximander, which is at least so far true that he clearly betrays the influence of his predecessor (41)」。


  VIII. 作品和文體


  「He used simple and economical Ionic speech」。這是相對於Anaximander而言的。阿那克西曼德雖然是用散文撰述哲學作品的第一人,但仍保留詩意化的語言:「speaking of them thus in rather poetical terms」。阿那克西曼尼能夠使用簡單而經濟(simple and economical)的語言來進行哲學寫作,表明思辨能力以及語言的掌握、運用能力的提高。


  IX. 本體論


  1. 「氣」作為本原:


  (a). 「Anaximenes and Diogenes make air prior to water」 (Aristotle, Metaphysics, 984 a)。


  (b). Anaximenes of Miletos, son of Eurystratos, who had been an associate of Anaximander, said, like him, that the underlying substance was one and infinite. He did not, however, say it was indeterminate, like Anaximander, but determinate; for he said it was Air (Phys. Op. fr. 2 qt. Burnet, 73).


  (c). Anaximenes said that infinite air was the principle, from which the things that are becoming, and that are, and that shall be, and gods and things divine. All come into being and the rest form its products. The form of air is of this kind: whenever it is most equable it is invisible to sight, but is revealed by the cold and the hot and the damp and by movement (Hippolytus Ref. 1, 7, I, qt. Kirk, 145)。


  A. 思想的來源與傳承:文獻(a)表明阿那克西曼尼在泰勒斯的基礎上提出是「氣」,而非「水」乃世界的本源。文獻(b)則說明阿那克西曼尼肯定阿那克西曼德對世界本原的空間和數量上的無限的規定,但不認為其性質「未定」, 而是一種確定的物質形式--「氣」。


  B. 「氣」的理解:


  (1) 「氣」(air)在阿那克西曼尼是其有四種含義


  (a) In its normal condition, when most evenly distributed, it is invisible, and it then corresponds to our 「air」


  (b) The breath we inhale


  (c) The wind that blows


  (d) Mist or vapour


  (2) 柏奈特(Burnet)認為阿那克西曼尼以「氣」為世界的本原時,涵括此四種含義上。因為「It was Empedokles we shall see, who first discovered that what we call air was a distinct corporeal substance, and not identical with vapour or with empty space (74)。


  (3) 但Kirk認為:「Anaximenes probably said that all things were surrounded by 「wind (or breath) and air」, and that the soul is related to this air; which suggests that for him air was not mist but, as Hippolytus assumed, the invisible atmospheric air. This is confirmed by the fact that he evidently described winds as slightly condensed form of air (146).


  C. 阿那克西曼尼提出以「氣」為始基的理由


  D. 宇宙物質也應該是生命物質。此點類似泰勒斯認為「水」是本原的理由(Aristotle, Metaphysics, 983b)。阿那克西曼尼觀察到呼吸乃生命的象徵,而呼吸即「靈氣」、「靈魂」: 「Just as,」 he said, 「our soul, being air, holds us together, so do breath and air encompass the whole world」 (Aet. Qt. Burnet, 73)。


  E. 受到阿那克西曼德的影響,阿那克西曼尼修正泰勒斯的觀點,認為更具變化、更不易感知、無限的「氣」方為世界本原。


  F. Guthrie 認為一理論的提出除了有意識、理性的理論建構之外,還受到「無意識的預設」(unconscious presupposition)的影響:which were his inheritance from the current and popular views of his time (119)。此種預設包括:


  (1) That the air which we breathe should be the life itself which animates us is a common idea, and the breath-soul a world-wild conception (128)


  (2) The idea that a female could be impregnated, and thus new life originated—Achilles in Iliad (128)


  (3) Orphism: 「the soul enters into us from the whole as we breathe, borne by the winds」 (129).


  2.「氣」乃神聖(air is divine):此點同阿那克西曼德,將本原視為神聖:Afterwards, Anaximenes determined that air is a god, and that it comes into being, and is measureless and infinite and always in motion (Cicero, qt. Kirk, 150)。


  6. 萬物之生成


  A. 原因:與泰勒斯和阿那克西曼德通,持物活論,認為本原乃 self-caused, 處self-movement, eternal-motion的狀態。


  B. 生成的機制:It is always in motion; for things that change do not change unless there be movement. Through becoming denser or finer it has different appearance; for when it is dissolved into what is finer it becomes fire, while winds, again, are air that is becoming condensed and cloud is produced from air by felting. When it is condensed still more, water produced, and when condensed as far as possible, stones. The result is that the most influential components of generation are opposites, hot and cold (Hippolytus Ref. 1, 7, I, qt. Kirk, 145)。這就是阿那克西曼尼的事物的生成乃因本原「氣」的「凝聚」(condensation)和「稀薄」(rarefaction)。此理論的提出應該是基於日常生活的觀察:呼出的氣流可以是冷氣,也可以是熱氣。在這裡,阿那克西曼德的「冷」和「熱」的對立就體現在氣的「稀」 (rarity)、「凝」(density)。阿那克西曼德是一中分離生成觀,而阿那克曼尼是一種「典型的轉化生成觀」(趙敦華,11)。


  X. 宇宙論


  1. 地球:As the air 「felted」, earth, he says, came into being first, quite flat; wherefore it rides, as is reasonable, upon the air (Stromateis, qt. Guthrie, 133)。


  A. 「氣」凝聚首先形成地球


  B. 平、圓的地球,如同一桌子,可以否在空氣之中。


  2. 天體的形成:And the sun, moon and other heavenly bodies originate from earth. He argues at any rate that the sun is earth but acquires great heat form its swift motion (Guthrie, 133).


  A. 太陽、月亮和其他天體都是源於地球。照此解釋,天體的形成過程應該是「氣」先凝聚而成地球,在從地球稀薄成火,從而形成群星。此點是阿那克西曼尼宇宙論中混亂之處。


  B. 因為源於地球,故太陽也和地球有同樣的構成,只是因為快速的運轉而溫度很高。


  3.對阿那克西曼德宇宙論的一點修正:But on one astronomical point Anaximenes improved on Anaximander, for the report in Hippolytus that according to him 「the stars give no heat owing to that their great distance」 shows that he abandoned the strange doctrine that the stars are nearer the earth than is the sun (Guthrie, 138)。


  XI. 氣象學


  1. 虹(Rainbow)的形成:He also spoke of the rainbow, no longer a radiant goddess Iris but only the effect of the sun』s rays on densely compacted air, which appeared in different colours according as the sun』s heat or the cloud』s moisture prevailed (Guthrie, 139)


  2. 地震的形成:Anaximenes says that when the earth is in process of becoming wet or dry it breaks, and is shaken by the high ground breaking and falling; which is why earthquakes occur in droughts and again in heavy rains: for in droughts the earth is dried and so, as just explained, breaks, and when the rains make it excessively wet it falls apart (Aristotle, Meteor. 365b, qt. Guthrie, 139)。


  XII. 評價


  1. 阿那克西曼尼以「氣」為世界本原,雖然可以說是一種退步,相較於阿那克西曼德的更為抽象的「未定」。「氣」仍為感性的物質性的規定,但較之泰勒斯的「水」,更為 non-perceptible,這是一進步。同時吸收了阿那克西曼德認為本原在空間、數量上無限的理論。


  2. 阿那克西曼將本原和「靈魂」聯繫起來。黑格而有很高的評價:「Anaximenes shows very clearly the nature of his essence in the soul, and he thus points out what may be called the transition of natural philosophy into the philosophy of consciousness, or the surrender of the objective form of principle」 (190)。此點影響到阿那克薩戈拉對靈魂/理智和物質的區分。


  3. 但阿那克西曼尼最主要的貢獻還是生成機制的提出:凝聚和稀疏。他的理論「is the first theory answering the question, How can there be development out of one primal material?」, 此種將物質的性質的變化歸因於數量的變化的思想影響甚巨(包括現代科學),「The significance of this principle of thinning and thickening lies in its advancement toward an explanation of the world from mechanical principles –the raw material of materialistic atomistic systems」 (Nietzsche, 42)。柏奈特認為阿那克西曼尼乃米利都學派的集大成者(the culminating point of the line of thought which started with Thales, and to show how the 「philosophy of Anaximenes」 came to mean the Milesian doctrine as a whole):At first, this looks like a falling off from the more refined doctrine of Anaximander to a cruder view…In fact, it makes the Milesian cosmology consistent for the first time; since a theory which explains everything as a form of a single substance is clearly bound to regard all differences as quantitative. The only way to save the unity of the primary substance is to say that all diversities are due to the presence of more or less of it in a given space (74)。但泰勒斯應該已經有此等凝聚和稀疏的思想,而阿那克西曼尼將其系統化,故黑格爾將此種思想歸之於泰勒斯 (181)。而柏奈特亦提到Aristotle 在其《物理學》中似暗示阿那克西曼德已提及condensation和rarefaction (Burnet, 74, n. 1)。


  4. 在古代,阿那克西曼尼受到更多的尊崇:Anaximenes was more admired in antiquity than Anaximander (Russell, 28)。


  A. 對畢達哥拉斯的影響


  B. 阿那克薩戈拉對「靈魂」的強調


  C. 對原子論者機械論的影響。


  D. 對倫理化時期的哲學和中世紀神學的影響


  註:柏奈特強調阿那克西曼尼的影響時沒有側重他的一些負面作用,如他認為地球是漂浮在空氣中的平、圓的桌狀之物。


  5. 但現代卻會有相反的評論:though almost any modern world would make the opposite valuation(Russell, 28)。現代學術的專業化和世俗化產生此種轉變。對阿那克西曼尼批評主要集中在(和阿那克西曼德相比):


  A. 想象力的缺乏。


  B. 理論建構不夠大膽。


  C. 數學模型運用的闕如。


  D. 理論闡釋方面的邏輯性、體系建立能力的欠缺。


  Works Cited:


  Aristotle. Metaphysics. 2nd ed. Trans. W.D. Ross. In The Works of Aristotle. Vol. VIII. Oxford: Clarendon, 1928.


  Burnet, John. Early Greek Philosophy. 4th ed. London: Adam &Charles Black, 1948.


  Guthrie, W.K.C. A History of Greek Philosophy. Vol. I. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1962.


  Hegel, G. W. F. Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Trans. E.S. Haldane.


  London: Kegan Paul, 1892.


  Kirk, G. , Raven, J. and Schofield M. The Presocratic Philosophers. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.


  Nietzsche, F. The Pre-Platonic Philosophers. Trans. Greg Whitlock. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.


  Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945.


  趙敦華,《西方哲學簡史》,北京大學出版社,2001。

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