主謂一致

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更新時間: 2013-09-25

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主謂一致是指: 1) 語法形式上要一致,即單複數形式與謂語要一致。2) 意義上要一致,即主語意義上的單複數要與謂語的單複數形式一致。 3) 就近原則,即謂語動詞的單復形式取決於最靠近它的詞語, 一般來說,不可數名詞用動詞單數,可數名詞複數用動詞複數。

主謂一致 -概述
主謂一致主謂一致指「人稱」和「數」方面的一致關係。對大多數人來說,往往會在掌握主語和隨後的謂語動詞之間的一致問題上遇到困難。一般情況下,主謂之間的一致關係由以下三個原則支配:

語法一致原則 (grammatical concord)

意義一致原則 (notional concord)

就近原則 (principle of proximity)

(一)
主謂一致 -語法一致原則

用作主語的名詞片語中心詞和謂語動詞在單、複數形式上的一致,就是語法一致。也就是說,如果名詞中心詞是單數,動詞用單數形式;如果名詞中心詞是複數,動詞用複數形式。例如:

This table is a genuine antique.

Both parties have their own advantages.

Her job has something to do with computers.

She wants to go home.

They are divorcing each other.

Mary was watching herself in the mirror.

The bird built a nest.

Susan comes home every week-end.

(二)
主謂一致 -意義一致原則


有時,主語和謂語動詞的一致關係取決於主語的單、複數意義,而不是語法上的單、複數形式,這樣的一致關係就是意義一致。例如:

Democratic government gradually take the place of an all-powerful monarchy.

A barracks was attacked by the guerilla.

mumps is a kind of infectious disease.

The United States is a developed country.

It is the remains of a ruined palace.

The archives was lost.

This pair of trousers costs fifty dollars.

(三)
主謂一致 -就近原則

有時,謂語動詞的單、複數形式決定於最靠近它的詞語。

例如:

Either my grandsons or their father is coming.

No one except his daughters agree with him.

Mary and her sisters are baking a cake.

Neither Richard nor I am going.

主謂一致 -以集合名詞做主語的主謂一致問題

有些集合名詞,ommittee,council,crew,crowd,family,gang,government,group,mob,staff,team, union等,在意義上是複數,但在語法形式上是單數,這類名詞作主語的主謂一致問題往往遵循「語法一致」或「意義一致」原則。例如:

The committee has/have decided to dismiss him.

A council of elders governs the tribe.

The present government is trying to control inflation.

The school staff are expected to supervise school meals.

(一)通常作複數的集體名詞

包括police,people, cattle, militia, vermin等,這些集體名詞通常用作複數。

例如:

The British police have only very limited powers.

The militia were called out to guard the borderland.

It seems the cattle on the sides of the dikes were the only living creatures in these desolate surroundings.

(二)通常作不可數名詞的集體名詞

通常作不可數名詞的集體名詞,包括poultry,foliage,machinery, equipment,furniture,

merchandise等,這類名詞后的動詞用單數形式。

例如:

Poultry is expensive at this time of year.

That green foliage was restful.

The merchandise has arrived undamaged.

All the machinery in the factory is made in China.

The suite of furniture he bought was of contemporary style.

The equipment of the photographic studio was expensive.

(三)可作單數也可作複數的集體名詞

可作單數也可作複數的集體名詞,包括audience, committee, crew, family, government,jury等。

例如:

The audience was/were enthusiastic on the opening night of the play.

The committee has/have decided to dismiss him.

The jury is/are about to announce the winners.

The government has/have discussed the matter for a long time.

三、a committee, etc of +複數名詞的主謂一致問題

如果主語是由a committee of /a panel of /a (the) board of +複數名詞構成,隨後的動詞通常用單數。

例如:

A committee of twelve men is to discuss the matter.

A panel of experts has considered the situation.

The board of managers is responsible for the firm.

四、以-s結尾的名詞作主語的主謂一致問題

英語可數名詞的規則複數形式是在詞尾加-s或-es,但是有一些以-s結尾的名詞並不是可數名詞。它們用法多樣,造成了實際使用上的困難,以下詳述了以-s結尾的名詞作主語的主謂一致問題。

(一)以-s結尾的疾病名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

(二)以-s結尾的遊戲名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

(三)以-s結尾的地理名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

(四)以-ics結尾的學科名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

(五)其它以-s結尾的名詞的主謂一致問題

(一)以-s結尾的疾病名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

以-s結尾的疾病名稱作主語的主謂一致問題,如:arthritis,bronchitis,diabetes,mumps,phlebitis,rickets,這類以-s結尾的疾病名稱作主語時,謂語動詞通常用作單數。

例如:

Arthritis causes great pain in the joints of the patient.

The diabetes is a kind of chronic disease.

measles usually occurs in children.

Phlebitis is a swollen condition of the blood vessels.

(二)以-s結尾的遊戲名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

以-s結尾的遊戲名稱作主語時,謂語動詞通常用作單數。

例如:

Darts is basically a easy game.

Marbles is not confined to children.

Skittles is not fashionable nowadays.

Draughts is not very difficult to learn.

但當Darts,Marbles等的意義為遊戲器具而非遊戲名稱時,謂語動詞通常用作複數。

例如:

Three darts are thrown at each turn.

All nine skittles were brought down by the good throw.

(三)以-s結尾的地理名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

某些以-s結尾的地理名稱,如果是國名,如the United States,the Netherlands等,因其是單一政治實體,所以謂語動詞用作單數。

例如:

The United States was hit by the Great Depression in 1930s'.

In early January 1996 the Netherlands was hit by its worst storm since 1976.

但如果是群島、山脈、海峽、瀑布等地理名稱作主語,謂語動詞用作複數。

例如:

The West Indies are commonly divided into two parts.

The Himalayas have a magnificent variety of plant.

The Straits of Gibraltar have not lost their strategic importance.

The Niagara Falls are perhaps the most splendid waterfall in the world.

(四)以-ics結尾的學科名稱作主語的主謂一致問題

某些以-ics結尾的學科名稱作主語時,如physics,mathematics,mechanics, optics, acoustics, politics statistics, economics, linguistics, athletics等, 謂語動詞通常用作單數。

例如:

Physics is a fundamental subject in science.

The third world economics is promising.

Acoustics studies the science of sound.

Mathematics is an interesting subject.

Athletics is a required course for students of all grades.

但如果這類名詞表示學科以外的其它含義,可作複數用。

例如:

Athletics have been greatly encouraged at this college.

The acoustics of the new concert hall are perfect.

The economics of the project are still at issue.

(五)其它以-s結尾的名詞的主謂一致問題

A.以-s結尾的由兩部分組成的物體名稱作主語

英語中有一些通常以-s結尾的由兩部分組成的物體名詞,如glasses, pincers,pliers,scissors, shorts,suspenders,trousers等,這類名詞做主語,如果不帶「一把」、「一副」等單位詞,謂語動詞通常用複數。

例如:

Mary's glasses are new.

John's trousers are black.

如果帶有單位詞, 則由單位詞決定動詞的單、複數形式。

例如:

One pair of pincers isn't enough.

Two pairs of scissors are missing from my tool box.

B.其他以-s結尾的名詞

英語中還有一些以- s結尾的名詞,如archives,arms,clothes, contents, eaves, fireworks, goods, minutes, morals, remains stairs, suburbs, thanks,wages這類名詞作主語時,謂語動詞通常用複數。

例如:

The archives of the country are kept in the Department of Security.

The contents of the book are most amusing.

High wages often result in high prices.

My thanks are sincere.

五、如果句子的主語是並列結構,其主謂一致問題通常遵循以下原則:

(一)由and/both...and連接的並列主語的主謂一致問題

(二)由or/nor/either...or連接的並列主語的主謂一致問題

(三)主語 + as much as,etc的主謂一致問題

(一)由and/both...and連接的並列主語的主謂一致問題

由and/both...and連接的並列結構作主語,可根據主語的意義決定謂語動詞的單、複數形式。

例如:

pancakes and syrup is a tasty breakfast.

The number and diversity of British newspaper is considerable.

Good and bad taste are inculcated by example.

Fish and chips are getting very expensive.

A truck and a car were in the ditch.

Both Cathy and her daughter Lida have gone fishing in Canada.

當and連接的並列名詞片語帶有each,every,或者many a 等限定詞時,謂語動詞通常用單數。

例如:

Each man and each woman there is asked to help.

Every flower and every bush is to be cut down.

Every change of season, every change of weather, indeed every hour of the day, produces some change in the magical hues and shapes of these mountains.

Many a boy was disappointed after seeing the film.

(二)由or/nor/either...or連接的並列主語的主謂一致問題

由or,nor,either...or, neither...nor,not only...but also連接的並列結構作主語,隨後的動詞形式通常按照「就近原則」處理。

例如:

Neither Lucy nor Carol has any money left.

Neither sleet nor snow stops him from driving his new Mercedes-Benz.

Either Tina or Carol is sure to know the answer.

Neither my father nor my brothers are likely to be at theater.

Neither the Kansas coach nor the players were confident of victory.

Not only one, but all of us are hoping to be there.

Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been stolen.

(三)主語 + as much as,etc的主謂一致問題

當主語後面跟有由as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等引導的從屬結構,或跟有由as well as, in addition to ,with, along with, together with, except等引導的片語時, 其後的動詞形式取決主語的形式。

例如:

The vessel, with its entire crew and cargo was lost.

The ocean, as well as the gulf and the bay, provides good fishing.

John, rather than his roommates, is to blame.

Hugh,as well as his two sisters, is vacationing in Wyoming this summer.

Some of the employees as much as the manager were responsible for the failure.

My husband,more than anyone else in the family, is longing to go there again.

Billy, together with his sisters, was wounded in the accident.

No one except two girls was late for school.

六、以表示數量概念的名詞片語作主語的主謂一致問題

數量概念分兩類:一類是確定數量,如 two years, five seconds,three kilos,等,另一類是非確定數量,如all of..., some of..., none of...。如果用這類表示數量概念的名詞片語作主語,會產生主謂一致問題。

(一)以表示確定數量的名詞片語作主語的主謂一致問題

(二)以表示非確定數量的名詞片語作主語的主謂一致問題

(一)以表示確定數量的名詞片語作主語

當主語為表示確定數量的名詞片語時,如果數量概念被看做一個整體,動詞用單數,如果被看做組成該數量的個體,動詞用複數。

例如:

The treasurer considered that twenty dollars was not too much to ask.

"Two months is too short a time," General manager warned, "we must hurry up."

Three weeks is needed to complete the task.

There were six silver dollars in each of the stockings.

Three pints is not enough to get him drunk.

A total of 50,000 new bicycles was registered in the year.

如果作主語的名詞片語是由「分數/百分數+ of」片語構成,其動詞形式 取決於of片語中名詞的類別。

例如:

Two-thirds of the people present is against the plan.

Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is covered by sea.

Over twenty percent of the city was destroyed in the war.

Forty-five percent of the doctors were woman.

兩數相減或相除,謂語動詞用單數;兩數相加或相乘,謂語動詞可用單數,也可用複數。

例如:

Sixty minus seventeen leaves forty-three.

Forty-two divided by six is seven.

Six and eight makes/make fourteen.

Six times eight is/are forty-eight.

如果主語由"one in/one out of + 複數名詞" 構成,在正式語體中,動詞用單數。

例如:

One in ten students has passed the examination.

One out of twelve bottles was left intact.

(二)以表示非確定數量的名詞片語作主語的主謂一致問題

如果主語由 "a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of +名詞"或由「a kind/sort/type of, this kind/sort/type of+名詞」 構成,謂語動詞通常用單數。

例如:

A panel of us has decided to hire a boat and travel through Holland by canal.

A pile of apple logs was set beside the hearth.

A portion of reports is deceiving.

This kind of cars is rather expensive.

This type of women is dangerous.

That type of machines is up-to-date.

如果主語是由「many a +名詞" 或「more than one +名詞"構成,隨後的動詞遵循「語法一致」原則,用單數。

例如:

Many a person in these circumstances has hoped for a long break.

Many a man has his own responsibility.

More than one student has failed the exam.

More than one ship was lost this year.

如果主語是all of, some of,none of, half of, most of,lots of,loads of ,plenty of,等表示非確定數量的名詞片語,謂語動詞的單、複數形式根據 of片語中名詞類別而定。

例如:

Most of the money was recovered by Deputy Player.

All of the cargo was lost.

Some of the books were badly torn.

None of my friends ever come to see me.

Half of the building was destroied during the war.

Half of the students are eager to leave now.

Lots of people are waiting outside.

Loads of apples have been distributed among the children.

Plenty of water was prepared for irrigation.

主謂一致 -主謂一致的易錯點歸納

■不定式短語、動詞-ing形式或名詞性從句作主語,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

Remember /To remember English words is not easy. 記英語單詞不容易。

Who will do the job hasn』t been decided yet. 誰來做這項工作還沒決定。

註:what引導主語從句時,如果其表語是複數形式,謂語動詞要用複數形式。如:

What he took with him were two books. 他帶去的是兩本書。

■「名詞或代詞+由with, together with, along with, as well as, besides, but ,except, including, in addition to, like, no less than, rather than等引起的短語」作主語時,謂語動詞與前面的名詞或代詞的數一致。如:

Mr Li together with his two sons has gone to the cinema. 李先生和他的兩個兒子看電影去了。

No one except the two boys was late for class. 除了兩個男孩外,沒有一個人遲到。

Li Ming, rather than his classmates, has let out the secret. 是李明透露了那個消息而不是他的同學透露的。

■「more than one/many a + 單數名詞」作主語時,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

More than one person has known it. 不止一個人知道這件事。

Many a worker was killed in the accident. 在這個事故中死了許多工人。

註:「More+複數名詞 than one」作主語,謂語則用複數形式。如:

More persons than one have known it. 不止一個人知道這件事。

■「一兩個……」,用「one or two+名詞複數」表達時,謂語用複數;用「a(an) +名詞單數or two」表達時,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

One or two days are enough for them.

=A day or two is enough for them. 給他們一兩天時間足夠了。

■and連接兩個名詞一起作主語時,謂語動詞一般用複數形式。如:

Lily and Kite are kind to me. 莉莉和凱特都對我很好。

但是,當兩個名詞表示同一人、同一事物、同一概念或一個完整的東西時(其特徵是and后的名詞前無任何冠詞) ,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

The teacher and writer has come. 那個教師兼作家已經來了。

(The teacher and the writer have come. 那個教師和那個作家都到來了。)

Bread and butter is a daily food in the West. 奶油麵包是西方的日常食物。

A knife and fork is on the table. 有一副刀叉在桌上。

註:當and連接的並列單數主語前分別有no,each, every, many a, more than one 等修飾時,謂語動詞用單數形式。如:

Many a teacher and many a student has seen the film. 許多教師和學生都看過這部電影。

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