一般過去時

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更新時間: 2013-09-05

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一般過去時表示過去某個時間裡發生的動作或狀態;過去習慣性、經常性的動作、行為;過去主語所具備的能力和性格。基本結構:主語+動詞過去式+其他;否定形式①was/were+not;②在行為動詞前加didn't,同時還原行為動詞;一般疑問句Did+主語+do+其他。

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一般過去時它表示的是:某個動作發生在過去的時間裡,並且這個動作已經完成了。常和表示過去的時間狀語連用。如:last year, yesterday等;也可表示過去經常反覆發生的動作,常和often, always等頻率副詞連用。

1 一般過去時 -基本概念

1.「過去的時間」可長可短,哪怕是一分鐘之前發生的事,也是過去時,時間用just now 表示;當然一萬年前發生的事更是過去時;

2.這個「過去的時間」一般是比較籠統的「一段」時間,比如:yesterday, last week, in 1993, at that time, once, during the war, before, a few days ago, when... 等等。也就是說,「過去的時間」不是一個非常準確的時間,因為如果是明確的時間,就要用過去進行時了。

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3.過去時表示的動作已經結束了,它側重於這個事情已經做過並已完成,跟現在沒有多大的聯繫。如果要強調過去的動作對現在的影響,就要用現在完成時了。

2 一般過去時 -句型構成

一般過去時一般過去時

一般過去時主要是通過謂語動詞的變化來表示的。英語中每種時態都要求謂語動詞進行相應的變化。在一般過去時里,要求謂語動詞用動詞「過去式」。

原形動詞變為過去式,可以概括為兩類:一類是規則的變化,另一類是不規則的變化。

1.規則變化的動詞過去式

(1) 在詞尾加ed 或d

英語中大部分動詞過去式都是規則變化的,即在動詞后加上ed;如果結尾字母是不發音的e,則只要加上一個d就行了。例如:

work-worked             clean-cleaned             play-played

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decide-decided          live-lived                   love-loved 

(2) 以輔音字母+y結尾的,變y為i加ed

study-studied     hurry-hurried      carry-carried 

(3) 以重讀閉音節結尾的,雙寫最後的輔音字母再加ed

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stop-stopped         drop-dropped          wag-wagged 

2.不規則變化的動詞過去式

不規則變化是指過去式不能加ed,用另外一個詞來表示。這樣的不規則過去式也有很多,只有靠一個一個去記憶了。例如:

is/am-was         are-were           have/has-had

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shall-should      will-would         can-could         may- might

go-went            come-came       take-took 

sit-sat        say-said           get-got      swim-swam

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run-ran      write-wrote      sing-sang   tell-told 

speak-spoke     begin-began      break-broke

不規則變化中,還有少數詞的過去式與原形動詞完成相同;read的過去式只是讀音改變了。例如:

cut-cut     put-put     let-let         read-read [red]

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keep-kept          feel-felt     sleep-slept        sweep-swept  

build-built      lend-lent       send-sent    spend-spent

ring-rang   sit-sat   drink-drank    sing-sang   swim-swam 

think-thought  buy-bought  bring-brought  fight-fought

teach-taught  catch-caught

know-knew  grow-grew  throw-threw  draw-drew

3.規則動詞過去式的讀音 

在清輔音[p] [k] [f] [s] 等后,ed要讀[t]。

例如: worked, finished

在母音或濁輔音[b] [g] [v] [z] [m]等后,ed要讀[d]。

例如:lived, called

在[t]或[d]后,ed讀[id]。

例如:started,needed

3 一般過去時 -句型用法

1.在確定的過去時間裡所發生的動作或存在的狀態。

時間狀語有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

Where did you go just now?

2.表示在過去一段時間內,經常性或習慣性的動作。

When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.  

3.句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……時間了"  "該……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "時間已遲了"  "早該……了"

It is time for you to go to bed.  你該睡覺了。

It is time you went to bed.   你早該睡覺了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'寧願某人做某事'

I'd rather you came tomorrow.

4.wish, wonder, think, hope 等用過去時,作試探性的詢問、請求、建議等。

I thought you might have some. 我以為你想要一些。

比較:

一般過去時表示的動作或狀態都已成為過去,現已不復存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life. 

(含義:她已不在人間。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life. 

(含義:她現在還活著)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. 

(含義:達比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含義:現在還住在肯塔基州,有可能指剛離去)

注意: 用過去時表示現在,表示委婉語氣。

1.動詞want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2.情態動詞 could, would.

Could you lend me your bike?

4 一般過去時 -疑問句型

過去時的一般疑問句可以分為兩類。

1.was / were,  had (有)

它們的一般疑問句是將was / were, had移到主語前面,否定句是直接在它們後面加上not。例如:

He was very busy last Friday.

Was he very busy last Friday? Yes, he was. / No, he wasn't.

He wasn't very busy last Friday.

The girls were happy about it.

Were the girls happy about it? Yes, they were. / No, they weren't.

The girls were not happy about it.

She had a car last year.

Had she a car last year? Yes, she had. / No, she hadn't.

She hadn't a car last year.

2.實義動詞

實義動詞過去式的一般疑問句,是在主語前加上did;否定句是在謂語動詞前加上did not,並將謂語動詞改為動詞原形。請注意:過去時不分人稱和單複數,都是加did或did not。 例如:

Li Ming studied English this morning.

Did Li Ming studied English this morning?Yes, he did. / No, he didn't.

Li Ming didn't study English this morning.

We often played badminton together.

Did you often played badminton together? Yes, we did. / No, we didn't.

We didn't often play badminton together.

其次,had 如果作為實義動詞的話,也是加did或did not. 例如:

They had a meeting last Friday.

Did they have a meeting last Friday? Yes, they did. / No, they didn't.

They didn't have a meeting last Friday.

3.過去時的特殊疑問句 

When did this happen?  It happened in the Han Dynasty. 這是什麼時候發生的事?是漢朝時發生的。

How did you find the job? I found it in the newspaper.這工作你是怎麼知道的?我從報紙上看到的。

Who told you this? Mr. Green did.這事是誰告訴你的?是Mr. Green.

5 一般過去時 -三變技巧

一變:肯定句變為否定句

技巧1.當句中含有情態動詞或助動詞could,would,should等時,可直接在其後面加not構成否定句。例如:

I could get you a concert ticket. → I could not / couldn't get you a concert ticket.

技巧2.當句中含有系動詞was,were 時,可直接在其後加not構成否定句。例如:

I was on the Internet when you called me. → I was not / wasn't on the Internet when you called me.
技巧3.當句中謂語是除情態動詞、助動詞、系動詞was, were以外的動詞時,在該動詞之前加did not / didn't,動詞還原,構成否定句。例如:

The famous singer sang some Chinese songs. → The famous singer did not / didn't sing any Chinese songs.

二變:陳述句變為一般疑問句

技巧1.移動詞語的位置。將was,were, could,would,should等移到句首。例如:

He could pack his things himself. → Could he pack his things himself?

技巧2.添加助動詞did。謂語是除情態動詞、助動詞、系動詞was, were以外的動詞時,在主語之前加did,動詞還原。例如:

Mr Li looked very old. → Did Mr Li look very old?

三變:陳述句變為特殊疑問句

技巧1.確定疑問詞:人who / whom,物what,地點where,時間when / what time,原因why,頻率how often,長度how long,距離how far等等。例如:

They gave the concert last night. → When did they give the concert?

技巧2.辨認結構形式:疑問詞+情態動詞/助動詞/ was / were / did +主語+...? 例如:

The accident happened near the station. → Where did the accident happen?

6 一般過去時 -句型比較

一般現在時要和現在的時間相聯繫,而一般過去時和說話的「現在」沒有聯繫。

His father is a film director.

他父親是電影導演。   (他現在還是)

His father was a film director.

他父親曾是電影導演。  (他現在不是)

How do you like the novel?

你覺得這部小說怎麼樣? (還在看小說)

How did you like the novel?

你覺得這部小說怎麼樣?  (已看完小說)

7 一般過去時 -句型口訣

一般過去時並不難,表示過去動作、狀態記心間。

動詞要用過去式,時間狀語句末站。

否定句很簡單,didn't 站在動詞原形前,其它部分不要變。

一般疑問句也好變,did放在句子前,主語、動詞原形、其它部分依次站。

特殊疑問句也簡單,疑問詞加一般疑問句記心間。

最後一條請注意,動詞過去式要牢記。

8 一般過去時 -注意事項

1.注意主句與從句中時態的一致性

如果主句用了過去時,從句中一般也要用過去式,或者過去進行時、過去完成時等。例如:

He believed that he was right. 他相信自己是對的。

I didn』t know you were here. 我不知道你在這兒。

I thought they were with you. 我以為他們和你在一起。

2.在口語中, 一般過去時並不一定指真正的過去,而只是表示一種禮貌性語氣。例如:

I wondered (wonder) if you could do me a favor. 不知你可否幫我一個忙。

I wanted (want) to ask if I could borrow your car. 我想問問可否借用你的車。

I hoped (hope) you could (can) give me some advice. 我希望你能幫我出點主意。

Did (Do) you want to see me? 你想見我嗎?

3.used to 

used to 是一個片語,表示「過去曾經是……而現在已經停止了」的動作。例如: 

I used to work fourteen hours a day. 我過去常常一天干十四個小時。(而現在不這樣了)

I used to take a walk in the morning.我過去是在早晨散步。(而現在不在早晨散步了)

9 一般過去時 -參考資料

[1] 新E英語 http://www.mrshen.com/EngClass/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=809

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